Unity Accessibility Plugin – Update 9 – Is It Worth Doing?

After having spent months working on an accessibility plugin for Unity, it might be time to discuss the most basic question:

Is it even worth doing?

Are there Unity developers out there interested in using this plugin? Is it attractive for devs to make games accessible? Are there enough blind gamers out there? Is there money in this? And are there other reasons to do it?

Arnold Schwarzenegger looking at a skull like Hamlet, pondering a big question.

To Be Or Not To Be?

The Big Question: Is it financially viable?

The logic is simple: If it isn’t financially viable for developers to make games for the blind community, then it wouldn’t be financially viable to make an accessibility plugin.

Generally speaking, if enough people need or demand a specific Unity plugin, then someone will already have created one. Considering there currently is no accessibility plugin already available on the asset store, I have a feeling I already know the answer to this one.

Woman standing excitedly in front of the Unity Asset Store.

You want it? The asset store has it. Usually.

Let me say right away that I didn’t start working on this plugin to make money. But I want to look at this from all angles, including the financial side. So let’s look at it in detail.

Is there a Market for Blind Gamers?

The World Health Organization estimates just below 300 million people worldwide to be visually impaired (Source). To give you something to compare, that is a little less than the current total population of the US. The American Foundation for the Blind estimates that 22 million adult Americans have some form of visual impairment, and in total roughly 10% of the population suffer some kind of vision loss. (Source)

Those numbers are high enough to present a very viable market share, but being visually impaired and being blind is not the same thing. Out of those 300 million people, only 40 million are estimated to be legally blind, with the remainder having some vision left.

A woman wearing a blindfold is trying to use an iPad

Surprisingly, I couldn’t find any statistics on how many sighted people play on their phones while wearing a blindfold.

There is no way to tell how many people in this group would benefit from a screen reader plugin, or are able to play games just fine. For the purpose of my calculations, I will go with the most pessimistic approach and assume that currently the market is capped at 40 million people worldwide.

40 Million Blind Gamers? Really?

While 40 million still sounds like a decent market, that number is misleading. Are those 40 million actually interested in games, and would there be a way to monetize games targeted at them?

About 20% of the general population play video games (Source). Assuming that the blind population shares this percentage, that would bring the number down to 8 million potential blind gamers. Those stand opposite a staggering 1.2 billion sighted gamers. That means the blind gaming market is only 0.7% the size of the one for the sighted.

Considering the size and that this number is worldwide, including many non-English speaking countries, the market just became a lot less attractive. Now we’re talking about not just adding accessibility, but localization as well, if a developer wants a chance to reach that market.

Blind man with a white cane

What’s more, according to the WHO, more than 80% of the visually impaired are 50+ years old. I was going to discount this age group at first, but according to a representative survey, this age group actually represents a fourth of all gamers. You can find that survey here.

Marketing to Blind Gamers

While age might not impact the market size, discoverability of games made for the blind does. What good is a game made for blind people, if they can’t find it? This is a real problem. I recently heard from a colleague visiting a convention for blind people that many aren’t even aware that games for the blind exist at all.

Currently, there is no way for a developer to reach the blind target audience on a broad spectrum. AdMob doesn’t offer a check box to show a game ad only to people with visually impairment. Neither Apple’s App Store nor the Google Play Store offer a way to find apps that are accessible. There are no categories or tags to sort or filter them. Blind users rely on word of mouth recommendations, podcast Let’s Plays and a number of websites that try their best to maintain lists and recommendations of accessible apps.

Logo of the Steam Game Store

Steam has great discoverability compared to Google and Apple.

Oddly enough, a simple user tag system like Steam has successfully implemented would instantly fix this problem. I mentioned this to a friend and he noted that the app stores might actually not want to make discoverability too easy. Google and until recently Apple are also selling advertisements via their ad networks, so it would directly cut down on their income.

Do They Have Smartphones? Tablets? …or Internet?

This one is a tricky question – though it seems that with the exception of Cuba and North Korea, this doesn’t seem to be a problem. The statistics indicate that we are well on the way to everybody on the planet having a cellphone: Countries Population and Number of Mobile Phones. When looking at those numbers, keep in mind that they can be misleading. Even though statistically every man, woman and child in Hong Kong owns 2.4 mobile phones – it is safe to assume that there are plenty of people there that don’t have even a single one.

In a nutshell, don’t be fooled into assuming that all blind people in all countries have phones, internet or computers. I couldn’t find any good numbers for this, the closest I found was some statistics on how many people use a screen reader. But the survey was small and possibly not representative. I don’t know if the numbers outside of the US are even statistically relevant, due to the small number of participants. But you can find the survey here: Screen Reader Survey

At least for the US, the numbers are looking good. The majority of blind people seem to use or have access to a phone or computer and internet.

Monetization – Do They Have Money?

The question might sound cruel, but I said I was going to look at this from all angles.

Scrooge McDuck carrying a briefcase with money falling out.

The WHO states the 90% of people with visual impairments live in low-income settings. This can mean a number of things, like living in an underdeveloped country with inadequate access to health care. It could also simply mean being unemployed, possibly because of the visually impairment. The numbers on the National Federation of the Blind website point to an unemployment rate of near 20% for visually impaired adults in the US alone. (Source)

Monetization – Whale Fishing

Low income might not mean poor, but it means that this group will likely not spend huge amounts of money on games. In-app purchases in mobile games usually start at 99 cents a pop. This alone will hardly ruin anyone, but those 99 cents are not where a developer’s money comes from. The money is made through whales. And with 90% of a group being classified as low-income, it’s reasonable to expect there to be less whales in this group than in the general population.

Picture of a whale smiling lazily.

If you are unfamiliar with the term whale, here is an article that explains it: 0.15% Of Gamers Bring In 50% Of The Revenue

There are other means of monetization, such as simply charging a premium for a game, and showing advertisements. The premium game approach might work well with this group, but it doesn’t fly well with the rest of the gaming world, where everything has to be free. Advertisements are even trickier. Ad providers that pay-per-click will be useless since the chances of a blind user clicking on an ad are relatively slim. Rewarded video ads however could well work, as they usually pay for watched videos and not clicks.

If there was a way to include radio ads in mobile games, it would be a great way to gain some of that earning potential back.

An Unattractive Target Audience?

Let’s conclude that the majority of blind people worldwide has or could get access to a cellphone, but can’t spend a huge amount of money on games.

The market is small, and there are few marketing options. The app discoverability is poor and the monetization options aren’t as plentiful.

UPDATE: Before you read on, you might want to check out Ian Hamilton’s comment to this blog post. He raises some excellent points as to why and how blind gamers can actually be quite an attractive audience, even financially speaking. I won’t steal his words, so this link will take you directly to the comments: Comments

Big Publishers vs. Small Developers

That makes blind gamers into an unattractive target audience for the big players – if you look at it from purely a financial standpoint. Large user bases and whale fishing are important to big developers and publishers. Our own studio has been turned down by publishers because our games didn’t offer the ability to spend endless amounts of money.

Having said that – it’s possible that publishers and big development studios are interested in accessibility for other reasons. Such reasons could be maintaining a good image. It could be due to public pressure. Or because it is the right thing to do in an inclusive, civilized, western society. Or simply because the CEO has a relative who’s blind.

Smaller developers and indies on the other hand might be drawn to this group a lot more. The market might be smaller, but there is potential for growth, and it isn’t yet overcrowded with games. In other words: There is a LOT less competition. And smaller devs need a LOT less money to be financially viable.

A homeless man sitting on the street begging - next to a sign that reads: "will code for food".

Indie developers need less than big developers to be profitable.

The design challenge of making games for a blind audience could also be attractive to indies. If the blind are targeted exclusively, games can be made without any graphics at all, which could further entice small developers, as audio can be cheaper than graphics. In fact, I’m surprised not more indies have flooded into this niche yet. Maybe my plugin could give them the push they need. (Well – one can dream, right?)

The problem of discoverability for accessible apps and games remains. It is potentially the most important issue that’s blocking developers from entering this market niche. Incidentally, it is also the easiest to fix, if Google or Apple were willing to make a minor addition to their stores, in the form of a tagging system for example.

Conclusion

Summing this up is not an easy task.
It seems that estimating the earnings potential of this market is simply impossible. Which means it’s impossible to judge whether anyone would actually buy my plugin on the asset store.

So… the prospect of earning lots of money obviously won’t be the force driving me.

So? Is It Worth Doing?

Spoilers: Yeah, I think it is.
There are other things to consider aside from financial feasibility. Here are some of them:

Self-interest.
I have often wondered what would happen if I lost my eyesight. Maybe every programmer has wondered this at some point. I need my eyes for work. Sure, it wouldn’t be the end of the world, but personally, I would rather lose an arm or a leg than my eyes. If I go blind one day, I want to still be able to play games. Heck, I want to still make games. But one thing at a time. Self-interest is definitely at play here.

It might make people happy.
Who doesn’t love that? The feedback I have gotten so far is great and has motivated me like nothing else. Every time I read a positive comment on my thread at AppleVis or talk to someone on Twitter about this project, I feel the urge to drop everything else and work on the plugin some more. This is the kind of motivation that will keep you coding away the entire weekend without it ever feeling like work.

I want to see if I can do it.
That to me is a perfectly valid reason to do a lot of things, and maybe you can relate. Also, this is a missing feature, a hole that needs closing, and that keeps bugging me,

I really don’t expect to make heaps of money with it, and the numbers back me up on this. I’d be happy if the time I will have to spend on support is covered. Because that would mean I get to spend time on fixing bugs and improving the plugin

Final Thoughts – and numbers aren’t everything

Remember the Ice Bucket Challenge?

Actor Benedict Cumberbatch sits on a bench shivering, while being doused with ice water from above.

Only 0.01% of Americans have ALS, an estimated 30,000 people (Source). That number obviously is far FAR smaller than the 22 million adults with visual impairments (more than 700 times, to be exact). Yet, the ALS Ice Bucket challenge raised over 100 million dollars. And what’s even more, it raised public awareness. I bet if I talked to ten random people on the street, four of them will have heard of ALS. Or at least that crazy time when everybody filmed themselves pouring ice-cold water over their heads for some charity thing. But all of them will stare at me with wide eyes when told that blind people can actually use smartphones.

Numbers and financial feasibility aren’t everything. Developers, especially the big ones, have other good reasons to consider accessibility, and public image is important to them. Did you know there is actually a petition underway to entice the Pokemon GO developers to make the game accessible? It’s worth a try, since public awareness can move mountains.

My final take on the topic is this:
If it was easy, comfortable and convenient, more people would consider making their games accessible.
And that is one more reason to make this plugin.

 

Afterthoughts

Public Exposure

Unity currently has close to 6 million registered users (Source). Of course, not all of those actually will ever develop or release anything with the engine, but many will create multiple games, again and again.

34% of the Top 1000 Free Mobile Apps in 2016 Q1 were made with Unity.
This is relevant, because it says that if there is a popular game out there that everybody is playing, there is a 1 in 3 chance that it was made with Unity. But if it was made with Unity, then it will automatically be not accessible with screen readers. Case and Point: Pokemon GO!

Imagine the public exposure the whole accessibility issue could be getting if those popular and visible apps start caring about accessibility? Even if they only care about it because I offered them a convenient and inexpensive way to do so.

Non-Gaming Developers

I also want to mention use cases of the plugin outside of gaming.

There is probably a number of users currently not using Unity, because their software has to be Section 508 compliant. I imagine this includes a lot of public institutions as well as government subcontractors, the military and serious games developers. The plugin could introduce Unity to a whole new range of users. I am not sure that the plugin is enough to make apps actually 508 compliant, but it is a start.

6 thoughts on “Unity Accessibility Plugin – Update 9 – Is It Worth Doing?

  1. I’ve seen some usage data on blind accessibility, it’s only on two games but the data is very different to what you might expect, the reason being lack of competition. The percentage of sighted people who might find and be interested in your blind accessible game is unlikely to be the same as the percentage of blind people who might find and be interested in it.

    There’s a single line of code you can use on iOS to return a yes/no value for whether VoiceOver is turned on, which can then be plugged into analytics.

    MUDRammer did this. Based on just under a percent of the population being blind, they were hoping that maybe 1% of their players were. Turned out 14% of their players were. They had tapped into a drastically undeserved niche of online games that can be played by both blind and sighted on equal terms, so blind gamers disproportionately jumped on it.

    A MUD client is an easy thing to adapt to blind accessibility, it only took him about a day. And he sells it for $5 a time, so he made ‘an instant profit’ on doing the work.

    Another game to track the data was Solara. This was a visual strategy and base building game, so it took them more like a week to implement. And the figure they got back was more in line with prevelance data – around 1% of their players. That 1% played for far longer than anyone else, and spent far more on in app purchases that anyone else… their blind players were their whales.

    Again makes sense when you think about it, if you have less games to choose from you play those games for longer, and your gaming budget is spread between fewer titles. I met a blind gamer at a conference who had spent over $1000 on in app purchases on just one game (knights and castles).

    Blind gamers are also very loyal and vocal, I’d guess one sale to a blind gamer would be far more likely to result in extra sales to their friends etc than a sale to a gamer with full vision.

    And the media benefit, blind accessible gaming is something that journalists are often interested in covering.

    So I think there is definitely a business case to be made for it, so long as production costs can be kept low.

    Like

    • Hi Ian,
      what an excellent comment. I updated my post to refer to it, because I think you bring up some wonderful points.

      We are actually seeing similar results to everything you mentioned. When we released Crafting Kingdom, we got an initial download surge because we posted it in all the blind gaming forums that we knew. Such a surge can be very helpful if you don’t have big marketing budget.

      The game hasn’t been out long enough to have enough data on blind versus sighted players yet, but I would almost bet we will see similar results there too.

      I can also confirm that the blind community has been very vocal, and we received an unbelievable amount of feedback. Bug reports, ideas and improvements on how to make the accessibility better, and a surprising amount of people just saying thank you for making the game accessible at all.
      Don’t disregard the latter. It might not make you money directly, but it was exactly that positive feedback which motivated us to go back and fix more and more issues in regards to accessibility.

      And not to repeat you or myself, but we also heard very often that someone tested the game because it was accessible, and then their sighted brother, sister, wife, husband or friend got hooked. What more could a developer ask for?

      Thanks again for commenting, Ian!

      Like

  2. jsaxton says:

    This is a very compelling plugin. I am currently involved in a Unity game development project that is calling for Section 508 compliance. Can you please email me for further discussion?

    Like

  3. Any games in the school system need to be accessible and currently most are not. The law states that it is OK for a school to use an inaccessible game, but once a blind child enters a classroom, that game needs to be accessible to that child or the school is out of compliance.
    I have seen the whole educational system in a district disrupted because a parent of a blind child sued the district. In reality, as soon as a blind child enters a classroom, every single handout, computer, game, name tag, poster, book, worksheet… Everything needs to be accessible to that child. The teacher just can’t use things that are not accessible.
    So I think that the government is the market you should be focusing on. The government spends a wapping 38% of the gdp:
    https://data.oecd.org/gga/general-government-spending.htm

    and every single thing the government buys must be accessible if a blind person needs it. The government includes schools (both k-12 and universities), employment centers, hospitals, jails, military, anything with a .gov website and thousands of other agencies. I don’t know all the agencies that use games, but as you said, the military and education do for sure.
    Currently there is a problem in that a lot of the math curriculum is now using an online game called Jiji:
    http://web.stmath.com/
    and if you go into that page with NVDA, it is completely inaccessible.
    Teachers are forced not to use this core part of their lesson as soon as a blind child walks into their class on the first day.
    Another major problem is the tools that the school teaches. A class is required to make something like CSS styling accessible if a student wishes to take an HTML class. There has been so much heartache in universities because of the massive fights between the accessibility department and the computer science department.
    I could go on for hours expounding on how education is such a huge market, but I think the above gives some idea of just how important the ADA is in education.
    Blind children and their parents can and have dictated what can be used in the classroom.

    I also think you are way underestimating the elderly market. The problem is that a huge number of elderly people know they are blind, but don’t get tested. I am sure what happens is an older person tries to play a game and can’t see what is going on, so gets frustrated and quits. Another may be that the elderly person has played a game for years but now can’t see well enough to effectively play. This means that they either play the game by memory, have their grand kids help them or stop playing.
    Above 80 years old, the amount of low vision people doubles:
    https://nei.nih.gov/eyedata/lowvision/tables#main-content
    So this is something to keep in mind.

    Like

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