Breasts? No thank you!

Maybe I should have just made a game about candy pieces. It would have been a lot easier. Calling my shiny, colorful puzzle game ‘Boob Rescue’ certainly made things a lot harder than they needed to be.

Screenshot of the game boob rescue. A puzzle game with crystals.

I think it’s great when developers create post mortems about their released games and I have always wanted to do the same. At the beginning of October I released my pink puzzle game on the Google Play Store. Boob Rescue hasn’t been on the market long enough to really gather relevant data in terms of download numbers or revenue, but I will post those at a later time. Today I want to write about the development of the game, which deserves its own post.

What I learned during the development of Boob Rescue in the past few months is that making a game about breasts is anything but easy.

Breast Cancer has to do with breasts, but it isn’t sexy.
Although these days the display of female breasts seems to be socially accepted for purposes of advertisement or promotion of goods and services, making a video game focusing on the female breast is still a challenge. Boob Rescue has nothing to do with sex, pornography or anything else the game’s title might suggest. It is a game about breast cancer with the goal to raise breast cancer awareness. That is a good cause and should not create any problems, right? Well…

A pink ribbon, the international symbol for the fight against breast cancer.

The idea for Boob Rescue was born in ‘Pinktober’, the breast cancer awareness month where everybody is happily and cheerily celebrating the fight against the disease. Pink t-shirts and fund raisers are omnipresent each year during October, and this year, I wanted to join the cause. Making a cute little mobile game dealing with breast cancer to raise funds for breast cancer research with in-app purchases was my attempt to support the fight.

I felt that I would be the right girl for the job: I am female, an experienced software engineer, and I have a personal connection to the subject matter. My mother battled hard with breast cancer and almost lost the fight. She had to undergo a very aggressive form of chemotherapy and lost one of her breasts. Somewhere in the back of my head lingers the constant fear that one day I might get hit by the disease as well, just because I might have inherited some of the wrong genes.

What better way than to combat that fear than to make a game that lets players ‘puzzle against breast cancer’!?

Not much ‘boob’ left
Well, let me tell you, now that the game has been released, there is not much ‘boob’ left in Boob Rescue. The first thing that died were the physicalized 3D breasts which could be touched and scanned in order to detect dangerous lumps. This was really the coolest feature of the game and has now been replaced by a simple 2D scratch-off style puzzle.

It is sad because the underlying tech prototype had worked really well and made great use of the multi-touch ability of modern tablets. It had a custom animation system with realistic surface deformation, using both blend shapes and joint animations. I even dare to say that this would have been one of the most realistic physicalized breasts you would have gotten on a tablet.

A screenshot from the game Boob Rescue. It shows an cartoon X-Ray of a woman with two tumor cells in her body.

However therein also lies the problem, since Apple or Google will not approve anything for release in their stores which even remotely features ‘bouncing’ breasts, no matter how far away the content is from any sexual reference.

It’s not that I can’t see where they are coming from. Even though the gameplay focused on detecting lumps and learning about breast cancer prevention, it isn’t hard to imagine that in the hands of teenage boys those wobbling 3D breasts might be used in ways not quite intended by the designer. 🙂

Breasts are fine in ads, but not the other way around
Even after removing the most loved feature of the game and replacing it with a more ‘safe’ 2D alternative, things didn’t go smoothly from there.

Since the game was free I wanted to bring in a bit of extra money by placing ad banners in the game. After signing up with one of the biggest ad networks out there it only took a couple of days to get the game banned from their network due to its ‘inappropriate’ content. Again the name ‘Boob Rescue’ was hurting the game, since something that is called Boob Rescue must clearly have some pornographic/sexual content, right?

My emails asking what exactly was inappropriate about the game never got any replies. It needed several attempts, a rework of the game’s logo and artwork to finally get signed up with an ad network without getting kicked out again.

Marketing
Next up was marketing. Everybody familiar with the mobile space knows that without marketing it is very hard to get noticed among all the hundreds of games released every month. One of the greatest things about Boob Rescue is that a share of every in-app purchase will be donated to breast cancer research. The more players spend in the game, the more funds for breast cancer research will be raised.

My plan was to get involved with the most popular breast cancer charities and try to get their help to promote the game on their social media accounts and in return it would (hopefully) generate lots of extra funds for them. I was even offering to guarantee a certain amount of donations, and pay for it myself, should the game fall flat. Everybody wins, right? Again, things proved to be a bit more difficult.

I have not yet found anyone who wants to partner with me and promote the game. I was turned down due to ‘contractual’ reasons or told that this isn’t really a fit. Do games and breast cancer not mix well? I don’t know if people found the two years my company has been in existence as too short to bear credibility, or if they found the whole idea of making a game about breast cancer too dubious. At this point I decided to just release the game without any support and see where things are going. I figure I can just donate the money anyway, without an official partnership.

A screenshot from the game Boob Rescue. A female surgeon getting ready to destroy the tumor.

Boob Rescue has since been released for phones and tablets, just in time for this year’s Pinktober. The game is out on the Google Play Store now and has not yet been banned, so I guess it will stay there for good.

I also submitted the game to Apple’s AppStore but there has been no approval yet. At the time of writing, it has been in review for three weeks, more than twice as long as the average review time. In my mind I am speculating wildly about what’s causing the holdup. I hope whoever is reviewing it doesn’t just look at the title and then rejects the for ‘sexual content’ without ever opening the app.

I never expected Boob Rescue to make millions. I just didn’t expect it to be this complicated.

Dev Update #6 – How to Balance a Game – Part 1

This is part 1 of my take on game balancing. This post will deal with the what and how of game balancing. In part 2 I will give an real life example, and run through some numbers, formulas and tables for my current game project.

Girl in front of her computer is devastated, because her favourite character class in the game she plays has been nerfed again.

Balancing means adjusting all numbers and values in your game so that they work together well. Here is an example showing what this means and why it is so important:

The Overpowered Warrior
Think of a warrior, a type of game character that commonly has very high values in defense. In a fight with a monster he can take a lot of hits without dying. But on the downside the warrior can only do very little damage, compared to a wizard for example. Essentially, a warrior needs his high defenses to stay alive longer – because he needs longer to kill an enemy. This is in essence how a basic warrior class is balanced.

Without this trade-off between damage and defense the character would become unbalanced. If a warrior had high defenses and high damage output, he’d be overpowered and players wouldn’t play any other class anymore. If he had low defenses in addition to his low damage, they would play any class but the warrior. You want to avoid either scenario.

Balancing on Paper vs. Balancing by Playing
Finding the right numbers for armor, damage, item prices and monster difficulty is not as straight-forward as one would initially think. Most games have more than two values that influence each other. This is what makes Game Balancing a topic all on its own.A scale with not two, but four plates hanging at a perfect balance.

Balancing is important for basically any game genre, from shooters to tycoon games. Does building get too expensive later in the game? Will the upgraded weapons make too much damage and make fights too easy? Does it pay off more for the player if he didn’t level up and kept the monster levels down?

There are two ways these questions can be answered: By playing the game – or by looking at spreadsheets.

Balancing by Playing
Balancing can be done simply by playing the game and adjusting the numbers until it feels right. But there are some downsides to using that as the only approach to balancing.

First of all make sure you are not under the illusion that balancing will somehow work itself out automatically as you go along. Simply playing a game every now and then won’t cut it. You will need to play the game a lot. A whole lot. And then again every single time you adjusted your numbers. You will need to schedule time for this into your development plan. And this is where the first problems arise.

The game needs to be playable first
Since you need to be able to play the game to do this type of balancing, all of the important game features need to implemented first. This means you have to be pretty far in development before you can even begin to start adjusting your numbers.

But the downside of waiting with the balancing until the end of the implementation is that it has a high risk of being skipped or not given enough attention. Time becomes a hot commodity near the end of production, when all efforts are spend on polishing, bug fixing and ramping up marketing. So it a good idea to start a early as possible with balancing.

You need to notice a problem before you can fix it
If a game is balanced only by playing it, you rely on perception to notice unbalanced sections of your game. In other words – you need to notice a problem before you can fix it. But almost every game can be played in several ways, with different strategies. A player with a different play style than your own might find your game terribly unbalanced, even when the numbers work great for yourself.

A blindfolded woman - Justicia - holding up scales. The blindfold is a symbol of equal justice for everybody.

Great for Justice – But not for Game Balancing

If you are the only one playing your game for balancing, you run the risk of adjusting the game to your personal play style, while being blind to issues others might encounter. So you need to seek strength in numbers. To balance by playing, you need beta testing more than ever to get your game in the hands of as many players as possible and hope for valuable feedback.
And even then it is easy to miss things.

The Late Game is hard to reach
Not every game has a late game, so this paragraph only applies to those that do. Late game is called late for a reason. It should take some serious play time to get there. And since it takes so long to get to the late game, you will not reach it by accident. During development games are usually only played for a few minutes at a time, to test out a feature or fix a bug.  You don’t play for hours on end to get to the final level to fix a bug in the boss fight. You will directly jump there using some kind of debug or cheat feature.

This is fine for development, but to truly balance your game, you will need to reach the boss battle through regular play. And then, when you realize the boss is horribly overpowered and you quickly lower the prices for better weapons and armor – you will need to start all the way from the beginning again – and play your game through with the new numbers. In short, the amount of time you need can quickly get out of hand. You run a serious risk of an unbalanced late game if you rely on this method of balancing alone.

Balancing on Paper
The other method of balancing a game is to use mathematics. I call it paper balancing – though of course instead of paper I am using spreadsheet software like Excel and Google Docs.

Using this method you work with your numbers directly and put them into tables and graphs to see whether they all work out. This can give you a tremendous amount of information about your game that you would never find out otherwise.

Various graphs, overlayed over one another, symbolizing that there is a LOT of data to evaluate to achieve balancing.

One of the strengths of paper balancing is that it is very easy to see the results and consequences of any changes your make to your values. In case you are easily scared off by math, you will be happy to hear that it requires very little actual math skills.
To demonstrate how paper balancing works I will give an example.

Paper Balancing – a simple example game
In this example I am developing a simplified hack’n’slash game. The player needs to kill monsters to  earn XP to level up. Now let’s do the basic balancing.

The first step is to find some starting numbers. I decided the player needs 100 XP to get the first level up, and each monster will give 5 XP. That means the player has to kill 20 monsters to get the first level, which sounds fair. But these starting numbers are not all that important, the real balancing starts now.

To make each level a bit more difficult, the XP needed to get to the next level should constantly go up. I am choosing that each level will require 35% more XP than the last.

Now I need to make the higher level monsters worth more XP – otherwise the players will just keep killing the low level monsters. Again I pick a random number and decide that each monster will give 10% more XP per level. This number has to be lower than the 35% more XP needed for leveling up. If it grew at the same rate, players would need to kill exactly the same amount of monsters to level up each time.

A goblin stands next to a sign post that lists his statistics. It reads: "Goblin. Level 1. Reward 5 XP, Time to Kill: 2 minutes"

Now that I have these two numbers, I can put them in a table and see if they work out. The spreadsheet immediately tells me that I need 135 XP to get to the second level. Since each monster on that level gives me 6 XP, I need to kill 25 monsters to level up. That’s 5 monsters more than I needed for the first level. Everything sounds pretty good so far, right?

But then I notice the rather large numbers near the bottom of my table. To get from level 29 to level 30, the player needs 446,011 XP. At this level, each monster will give 72 XP. My spreadsheet automatically calculates that this translates to 6,186 monsters that I need to kill. It also calculates how long this would take. The result is horrible.

If I killed a monster every two minutes while playing, and I would play for 8 uninterrupted hours a day, without stopping for food or going to the bathroom – it would still take me 26 days of playing without a break to get that level up. A more realistic player who can play maybe 8 hours a week would need to spend 4-5 months to get just this one level up. I have nothing against a little grinding, but that is just not acceptable.

And this is where the paper balancing really shines. Let me tweak the number of how much more XP is required for each level. I am tuning it down from 35% to 25%. Immediately the numbers adjust. Now I only need to kill 717 monsters to get from level 29 to level 30. This would mean 24 hours of game time, or 3 days of 8 hour power-gaming sessions.

Those numbers sound a lot more sensible now! And I found this out within 5 minutes of working with a spreadsheet. Can you imagine how long it would have taken me to balance this only by playing the game?
Isn’t math cool? 🙂

[To those actually double checking these numbers with a calculator right now: All numbers are rounded up. Since you cannot earn 3.5 XP, you will get 4 XP instead and so on.]

I shared the spreadsheet with this sample data on Google Docs, so you can take a look at how a balancing table can look like. You can also copy the document and play with the number to see what happens.
Here is the link: Balancing Table Example on Google Docs

The complexity goes up!
Just in case you are not yet convinced of the power of paper balancing, let me drive the point home some more. See, a real game is a little more complex than the example above.

In my hack’n’slash game, the player gets more XP when killing a higher level monster. But what is to stop low-level players from killing higher level monsters? Clearly, they need to be harder to kill. So their health needs to go up with each level.

But if their health goes up, it would take longer to kill them. To counter this, higher level characters need better weapons to do more damage in the same amount of time. So I need to make higher level weapons with higher damage.

Then, to stop low level players from buying high level weapons I need to make them more expensive. But to enable higher level players to buy those weapons, I also need to make higher level monsters drop more gold.

Question 1: At what rate do you need to increase the rate of gold drop for each monster level, so that a player can afford a new weapon each level before he has gained enough XP from the same monsters to level up?

Question 2: Do you really want to balance this by playing? Or does paper balancing sound pretty nifty right around now?

Not a perfect system
While they sound boring, spreadsheets will show you problems in your game that you would never see otherwise. It is not a perfect system, but it is definitely a more objective system than just playing and fixing the issues that happen to bother you. It is also a great tool to balance parts of your game that are hard to get to through playing, especially the late game.

But not all parts of a game can be balanced on paper. Action elements that require reflexes and timing – such as quick time events for example – are better balanced by trial and error during play. The same is true if you are making Flappy Bird. 🙂

Graphs and tables also can not tell you every strategy and exploit that your players will undoubtedly find when playing your game. This is why many online games need to readjust their balancing so often, as massive hordes of players develop new play styles and combos.

Best of Both Worlds
Summing up, balancing a game purely by playing it is a poor choice.
This isn’t necessarily true for all types of games, but enough to let it count as a general rule of thumb. 
This is not to say that you shouldn’t play your game. You should. A lot. It might be off-topic, but I cannot stress this point enough: Play your own game.

But as usual, the best approach is to use both methods of balancing. Have your spreadsheets and formulas ready, and then actually put those numbers to the test by playing the game, tweaking and adjusting as you go along. And if you run short on time near the end of development, you can rest assured that your spreadsheets have your late game covered.

Stop teaching your girls that computers are difficult!

Instead of posting another development update, today I want to talk about something that annoys the hell out of me: Parents that teach their kids that computers are difficult. This seems to happen with girls more often than with boys, but applies to both genders.

During my time at the university I worked as a network admin in our dormitory. I would help with all kinds of computer issues, but most of the time I would help students get their internet set up.

A Toy for toddlers. Simple blocks have to be put through holes. Each block will only fit through the hole with the correct shape. This toy is meant for 3 year olds or younger.

The complexity of connecting a LAN cable to a computer.

Sure, there was the occasional male student who complained about me blocking his port just because he forgot to turn off his DHCP server and trapped half the dorm’s occupants in his own network. But the vast majority of people coming to me during office hours to get help were female. But this post is not about whether girls need more help than men, or just don’t have as much of a problem asking for help. This is about what they said to me.

I don’t know anything about computers
Practically all of them repeated the same line: “I really don’t know anything about computers.” – usually followed by “It’s too complicated for me.” It sounded the same every time. It felt rehearsed, learned off by heart, like a mantra. Then they stepped aside and waited for me to do my thing, with no interest in learning how to do it themselves.

I am proud to say that I successfully fought the urge to grab them by the hair and show them that there really is only ONE SINGLE opening on their computers that the LAN cable could even fit into. Two year old kids can solve toys where they need to fit shapes into matching openings, so I am sure these college students would have been able to do it. But they were so convinced they couldn’t, that they didn’t even try.

My personal highlight were two french girls that were exchange students at my university. They tried to reach their dial-up internet provider (in France!) from the dormitory – using the network outlet instead of the phone line. The language barrier stopped me from getting them to understand the difference, and that they were trying to make an international phone call just to get online. But I tried my best to explain to them that we offered free internet inside the dorm and even lend them two of my own LAN cables (which they never bothered to return by the way). Care to guess what they told me (in broken english)? “Oh, we don’t know about ze computerz.” They too were convinced computers were too complicated for them.

Kids just repeat what the parents say
And you know what? I am really not angry at any of these girls. I am angry at the parents for teaching them this bullshit. All my female friends in school were repeating that same line over and over without ever questioning it. “Computers are too complicated for me.”. Their parents had taught it to them. What a bang up job, telling your kids they aren’t smart enough for something!

In High School my best friend’s dad wouldn’t even let her use their family’s computer at home – despite her being in computer science class! (Side note: If I remember correctly she also was the only other girl in computer science class aside from myself.) She knew how to program the darn thing, but yet, at home she wasn’t allowed to use it, because she was a girl. Oh yes – her brother was allowed on the machine. At least until he broke it.

Don’t Tell Your Kids!
Computers are not that complicated. Trust me. Things are only difficult until you learn how to use them. If you read this and you ever have kids, do me a favour. Under no circumstances ever tell them that a computer (or math for that matter) is complicated. It will discourage them from even trying. I have met the grown-up versions of these little kids and can attest to that.

So even if you think of computers (or math) as black magic that can only be operated by specialists, don’t share your opinions with your kids. It doesn’t even matter if your kid is male or female. Just keep it to yourself and let them decide on their own.

Final Note
After re-reading this I feel like I should call up my mom right now and tell her thank you. While my dad kept insisting that paper worked just fine for him, she dragged all kinds of computers and gaming consoles into our house. She was also the one who bought me my first Commodore 64 when I was eleven – along with a box of games and my very first programming book. I would not have become a software engineer if it hadn’t been for that. So thank you, mom.

Dev Update #5 – Releasing a Game is like playing the Lottery

The above statement might be bold, but I am going with it. Let me explain why.

Even with the best production values, you can hit bad luck and your game simply doesn’t perform well. At the same time, a game that plays more like a bug than a game gets featured in every magazine. Just look at the goat simulator. One could argue that it is the novelty factor that makes the difference. And while that is true to some extent, I am sure there are plenty of games with unique and novel gameplay out there that no one has ever heard of. Why are they not equally successful?

An angry man yells that the game "Sliced Bread 2014" is vile, despicable, racist and kills puppies. The text below him reads: "If People Hate Your Game Enough, They Will Do The Marketing For You".

You can get lucky and your game hits a nerve, or caters to a niche that happens to be ‘in’ right now. Maybe a journalist has an empty space to fill in a magazine and your game falls into his hands at the right moment in time. Maybe your game happens to come out when some other unpredictable but thematically matching major news event hits and acts like free marketing for your game. Or someone will randomly feel provoked by your game and start a big controversy about it (again, free marketing).

Neither of these events can be predicted or planned. There simply is a random element in the process that cannot be denied. That doesn’t mean there is nothing you can do about it.

Releasing a Game is like playing the Lottery… but you are allowed to improve your odds!
There is a random element in the process of releasing a game. But how big that random element is, is another matter entirely! You certainly can improve your odds in several ways. Disclaimer: This is not a complete list in any way, this is not an article about marketing strategy.

  1. Be as bug free as possible
    This one is self-explanatory I hope. Nothing wil turn people away from your game faster than bugs. Bigger studios have their own Quality Assurance departments, that do nothing but test a game for bugs all day long.
  2. Have high production values
    This one is more complicated, as it essentially has two levels. In the basic level this means your game should be complete and tested. I don’t mean tested for bugs, but for gameplay. Is your game fun? Does everything make sense? Are all features in? Is the UI easy to use? This type of testing is best done with people that have never played your game before, and this is called “Focus Testing”.
    On the second level high production values means high quality in everything else in your game, most prominently graphics and sound. High Quality doesn’t necessarily always translate to expensive. For example say your game has a sound effect with scratches and compression artifacts playing every time your click a button. It will annoy the heck out of people. Essentially, file off the rough edges if you can, and make your game more polished.
  3. Put some money into marketing
    It’s no secret that marketing is important. I listed it as number 3 on this list, but that is more ideology than truth. In reality, this one might be even more important than the other two. Everybody knows, even if a game is bad, it can still make a fortune with the right marketing. I heard rumors that publishers actually have internal guidelines to tell them when it makes more sense to pump the money into marketing for a mediocre game, rather than use the money on development and trying to make the game better. I have no idea whether there is any truth to that, but from a business standpoint, it would make a lot of sense. It’s the bottom line that counts.

Why does this matter to Game Tower?
These concepts should be applied to my virtual game studio as well. I mentioned in an earlier post that I strongly dislike the idea of the player choosing game genre and type, because it is such a poor way to predict a game’s actual success on the market. Even if it wasn’t, Game Tower is supposed to be about the management aspect of game production, not about designing games. So I needed another way to determine how successful a released game would be.

I chose to copy reality and actually made it a game of chance! Not a lottery, but a slot machine to be exact. At game release, the player will play a one-armed bandit with three categories: Reviews, Bugs and Pirating

A slot machine with three barrels. One for reviews, one for bugs and one for pirated game copies.

Note: This image is just a mockup graphic!

The game is a normal one-armed bandit slot machine. All three drums will roll and the player can hit a button to make them stop individually. Depending on what symbol the drum stopped at, your game will receive a bonus or a penalty. If you manage to get a heart in the review category for example, the reviewers will love your game more than usual and this will boost your game’s sales.

To really stick close to reality, the odds can be improved in my little virtual world as well. The thing about the slot machine is that the player can build floors, such as Focus Testing and Quality Assurance, that change how many hearts or skulls are on each of the drums of the machine. Releasing a game that is unfinished will increase the number of skulls on the Bugs drum. On the other hand, running a game through QA will add another heart on it.

Slot Machine from the game Super Mario Brothers 3. You could win extra lives and powerups by playing.

What I especially like about this solution is the fact that the user will trigger the slot machine himself. Technically, with some skill and good timing, that could improve his odds further. Do you remember this mini game from Mario Bros 3? With the right timing, you could get extra items. Timing is important for a game release too, after all 🙂 (OK, I might be stretching this analogy a bit thin at this point.)

Johnny Depp in a pirate costume explains that he is, in fact, a pirate. If there was ever any doubt.

I am not sure how much pirating would really influence the revenue. A game has to be somewhat successful to be pirated in the first place. DRM methods have proven mostly ineffective, and the question of how many people would actually buy the game if they couldn’t pirate it, will probably never be answered. At this point, it is just a number to factor into the revenue of the game. I needed a third category however and excessive pirating can definitely hurt sales. Instead of DRM the player can increase his chances here by building a Community Management floor. This floor will increase player’s loyalty – and also scout the warez and torrent boards for pirated copies.

Dialog Screen showing the end result of the game release lottery. The results were great reviews and only a few bugs, but the game was pirated too often. The end result gives a bonus of 0% to the sales of the game.

If you paid attention, you’ll have noticed that the three categories for the one-armed bandit are not a direct match to the list I created in the first half of this article. I found that I couldn’t really fit the marketing into a game of chance. Marketing – to the point where one can actually influence it – is rather linear. The more money you spend on it, the more your game will sell.

And even that will be available. Players can build a marketing floor and have it work on a game. This will directly increase the maximum amount of money it can make. But it won’t influence the lottery at game release.

My game design document is done now. Before I finally allow myself to begin with the implementation, I want to do a balancing pass on my game design on paper. Or in a spreadsheet, to be exact. But more on that in my next post.

Dev Update #4 – Creating Really Awful Pictures, aka C.R.A.P. (aka Coder Art)

My kind has long had a reputation for creating so-called ‘Coder Art’. This term describes all kinds of art, from 2D to 3D that has been created by coders themselves, instead of a real artist. And the result is art that can generally be placed within a spectrum ranging from small to high degrees of shittyness. This is just an observation of the average, of course. Some coders are capable of creating truly beautiful art for their games and music right along with it. So there are a few exceptions to this rule…
…unfortunately, I am not one of them.

If you're blind and reading this, imagine a picture drawn by a blind person. That's what this crappy graphic looks like.

Someone told me that looking at this gives them eye cancer.

With the Game Design Document nearly finished I have started adding little mockup graphics to it, showing what I think the UI (User Interface) should look like. A picture says more than a thousands words they say. I don’t know whether it really always says more, but it definitely says it faster. Why describe how an image on the screen should look like, when you can simply show a picture?

The UI is part of the GamePlay
I will not go as far as saying that creating mockup graphics of the UI is important for every type of game. In fact, I don’t remember seeing a single game design document for any of the AAA First Person Shooters I worked on that included any kind of mockup graphics for the UI. And that makes sense. These games had their gameplay tightly focussed within the 3D world (the 3D part is irrelevant, the same can apply to 2D). Instead of the UI there would need to be drawings of the in-game scenes and scenarios. And there were. These are called Concept Arts, and they were usually created by real artists that know what they are doing.

Mobile Game like this one however, are a different matter. In this game, essentially, the entire UI is the gameplay. All you really do is click buttons and scroll through menus and dialogs. So it would make sense to create little previews of it. Obviously these are not the final in-game graphics. A mockup graphic just conveys the general idea, content and layout. They work almost like a concept artwork.
Just much less pretty.A dialog window with a few buttons, labels and images. All important information is there, but it looks like a 3 year old could do a better job.

Personally, I wish I could skip this step. I really have to force myself to do this, because producing any kind of art – even the infamous bad ‘coder art’ my kind is known for – is a painful task for me. But there are two distinct benefits to doing it anyway:

Benefit #1 – Increase the odds in your favour
As painful as the creation process of these graphics may be – once I finally get started with the actual game, I won’t have to worry about layout and graphics, because I have mockups to guide me. This means less unpleasant tasks that interrupt the flow and need doing before being able to continue with the fun stuff (making the game). Every time you have to stop the fun to do something not fun, your game is at risk of being shelved forever. Because we are human and most of us like to procrastinate on things that we don’t like doing. Especially in our free time.

This is one more step that will help me not lose momentum during the game development and increase the odds that the game will actually get finished.

Benefit #2 – Actually design the UI
There is another benefit of going the extra step to create mockup graphics. Instead of making it up on the fly as you go along, you spend some time thinking about what your various dialog boxes, menus and buttons really should show.

For one this means considering how much screen space you really have available. You will notice this as you try arranging your little graphics in Photoshop and run out of space for button #36. And as a result, you will start throwing out or combining information that isn’t really needed. You will automatically streamline and de-clutter your UI without even noticing it.

Secondly, and this is more important than the de-cluttering, you will spend actual time thinking your UI through. There will actually be a design to your UI. Which button would open what menu? Would it be nice to have this in a separate dialog? How many clicks does it take to do XYZ? Hint: The answer to that last one better be low.

You don’t even have to be great at interface design (common sense is a very good place to start). It should be obvious that any UI that had any time and thought at all put into its design will automatically trump a bunch of random buttons that you throw in during the implementation to tie together your individual features.

I mentioned that for this type of game, the UI is part of the gameplay. So just like the rest of the gameplay, it deserves to be taken seriously and you should put some time and effort into designing it.

Example: A Game Tower Department
Here is a practical example of the above. I needed some way to distinguish different departments from one another. Coloring the background walls of the floors is one way, but I knew that wouldn’t be enough. I also want to avoid using text everywhere, which aside from being boring, incidentally also takes up more of my precious screen space. So each department will have it’s own icon, which is used in all the menus. And to streamline the UI, clicking on the icon will bring up the floor’s upgrade menu.

A painting of a room, with a single desk, a computer and a programmer in front of it. The labels next to him show the game that he is currently working on.My Game Design Document is nearly done. I fleshed out a level system for the player, worked out all the different department floors, nailed down the details of the upgrade system, the build system, the menu structure and even made a list with some ideas for achievements.

Can’t wait until that day I get to open up Unity and finally get going.

Dev Update #3 – Creating a Rewarding Upgrade System through visibility

To me the upgrade system in Tiny Tower never felt like an important part of the game. I never directly noticed any immediate effect of an upgraded floor, and worse, I never even knew exactly what I would get with the next upgrade level. So eventually I stopped upgrading my floors altogether. The upgrade system simply isn’t very rewarding. This has to be different in the design of my game. If I upgrade something, I want know what I will get in return. And I want to want it.

A roleplaying woman lovingly caressing her vest which gives her +5 to Dexterity.

My Checklist
There are several things a good upgrade system needs to master. Many of them come down to visibility in one way or another:

1. The player should know what an upgrade will bring him.
Regardless of the game, if the player is asked to spend whatever resource is required to upgrade a building or character or whatever, he needs to know what he will get in return. Without this information, no one can make an informed decision on whether the upgrade is worth the cost. And don’t be vague. Did you ever play a game with an upgrade description that simply read “will increase your attack speed”? Yes? Me too. It sucks. No one likes to buy a cat in a bag, not even with virtual money. So be as precise and as transparent as possible with the upgrades.

2. The upgrade should make a noticeable difference. 
Otherwise, why upgrade in the first place? If a game let’s you increase your character’s stats each level, but you barely notice any difference, then what’s the point? Eventually you will stop upgrading altogether. And that is bad for your game. Those games that rely on a virtual currency and in-app purchases will have lost one opportunity to make it attractive to the player to spend money on the game. And all other games will have lost a part of their game design.
If on the other hand an upgrade gives the player something that helps him get further in the game, or quicker, or both, you have a winner. Give the player something he really wants, and he will want to upgrade further. It’s delayed gratification all over again. If a player needs to save up those resources, upgrade points or ingame currency to be able to finally afford the upgrade, it should feel sweet. Don’t skip out on the gratification part.

3. The upgrade should be visible.
If you did upgrade your character, building, floor or whatever, it should be visually changed as well. Whether you display a number of colored points at the side of an icon or exchange the entire model doesn’t even matter, as long as it is noticeable in one single, quick glance. There are two reasons for this. The first is plain convenience. You don’t want to go into a menu to find out whether your building is level 2 or level 5. The second reason is to create the desire to upgrade more and further. Which will mean play the game longer, or potentially buy more ingame currency.
I mentioned my theory that I believe there is a perfectionist hidden in all of us in an earlier post. If two of your buildings have 5 stars on their side, but the third only shows measly two stars, most of us can’t help it. We want to bring that third building up to level 5 as well. Maybe it is just latent OCD. But if it can create fun gameplay, use it!

4. The upgrade should have a meaningful cost.
When I say ‘cost’ I don’t mean money. I am talking about whatever resource your upgrade system uses. It could be as simple as giving out points to increase character stats at each level up. The important aspect is that you knows what the upgrade is worth. Worth is not the same as cost. In my example, each increase of the ‘strength’ attribute will cost one point, but how much that is worth depends entirely on how many points the player gets when leveling up. If you only get a single point, it will be worth much more than if you had gotten 15. You know you cannot get another point until you manage to level up again. So when designing an upgrade system, you will also need to keep in mind how many of the resources required for upgrading your players will have available. Of course, if your one point increase in ‘strength’ then has no noticeable impact on the game, the worth diminishes. All of this will lead you directly to balancing, and I think that deserves an article all on its own. Just keep this in the back of your mind for now.

A picture of a cup of coffee. The stats next to it read: "Coffee, +5% work speed"

The Upgrade System in Game Tower
I designed the upgrade system in Game Tower with all of those aspects in mind. When the design document is done I will run some actual numbers through a balancing pass and see if they make sense. And I will blog about it, too. Here is my upgrade system checklist:

1. When upgrading a department, the panel right below the button will explain what the upgrade will give you. And not just a vague description either, it will show an exact number.

2. The upgrades will be meaningful, by making the department work faster by 5-10%. This will work well with the real-time mechanic I mentioned in my last post. Each upgrade also adds a work queue slot to the department so that it can work on more games. They will add a convenience factor that should be very noticeable. (more details below)

3. Each department will show it’s upgrade state directly in the main view. I’ve limited the upgrades to a maximum of three, and each one will be represented by a star on the wall. The work queue slots are also directly visible in the main view, as another indication of the upgrade level.

4. To limit the player from buying upgrades to early, making the game too easy and therefore no more fun – each released game will give the player an upgrade token to upgrade floors. This should regulate the amount of upgrades over time. The more games are released the more floors can be upgraded. So as upgrades become more important in the later game, the player will also have more upgrade tokens available.

Work Queues
After deciding to adopt pseudo-real-time for my game in an attempt to focus on the management gameplay, I also want to offer elements that make it easier to keep all floors busy and keep that efficiency meter up.

I am going to add a work queue to each floor, and the department will work on the games in it in order. That should make it easier to queue games and not have departments run out of work while I am not in the game. Having these queue slots right from the start would make the game too easy – or worse, too confusing. So instead each upgrade will unlock one queue slot.

On step further
While I was working on that upgrade system, I had another idea. Why not have special floors that are a kind of an upgrade all in themselves? For example if I build a Break Room in my game studio tower, maybe all other departments will work 5% faster. That would go together nicely with the real-time principle I think. I have couple of these ‘special bonus’ floors already in mind.

GamerGate isn’t evil, and feminism isn’t bitchy.

Are all gamers evil because of the harassment of Zoe Quinn? Ugh, surely no one actually believes that?

I refuse to believe it.
I am a female gamer and I refuse to believe that this group of ‘misogynstic male gamers‘, as they’ve been called, is actually all that big of a group.

Every male gamer and every fellow male game developer I have met so far was absolutely nice. I also worked at a AAA game developer for a very long time and found that my skills were what was important, and my gender not so much (ok, mostly). Of course, I worked with human beings, not trolls.

A man with a megaphone proclaims that they all think that women belong into the kitchen. And in bikinis. There a guys behind him saying that they actually disagree - but they don't have megaphones.

But, as always, those that scream the loudest are mistaken to speak for the whole group. Gamers are not evil.

By the way: The same is true for feminism. Zoe Quinn and Anita Sarkeesian do not automatically represent all women that are interested in a little more gender equality. I can’t count the times those names have been flung in my face when I so much as mention that maybe not all is always fair and right with the world of men and women.
Stop it. Please.
My opinions are my own. (And I haven’t even seen Anita’s videos.)

GamerGate isn’t evil, and feminism isn’t bitchy.